Open Source and Openly Licenced material for Open Educational Resource Repositories

Open Source and Openly Licenced material for Open Educational Resource Repositories


Welcome to Open Source and Openly Licenced material for Open Educational
Resource Repositories presented by UBC Library and Copyright at UBC.
Open Source and Openly Licensed Materials is the third in a
series of five videos. The purpose of this video is to discuss
the open source and openly licensed Content environment. In the slides that follow we will
discuss: One, what are open source and openly licensed resources; and Two, conditions
when using open source and openly licensed Content. More content is being made
publicly available for copying, reuse and even repurposing. The open movement seeks
to make software, research, data, images and text available to a global audience.
Open source content, computer software being the well-known example, is material
that can be used by anyone for any purpose including a commercial one.
Organizations such as the Public Knowledge Project, instituted at the
University of British Columbia in 1998, extend the open movement. Currently the
project runs a publishing program that includes the open journal systems which
is home to over 1000 titles. Open data is another area that has greatly enhanced the
ability of researchers to identify, reuse, and share data from both public sources
and research institutes, universities and individual researchers. More information can be found in the open data
handbook and at the website ‘Open Knowledge’. At first glance there seems to be a
contradiction between open and licensing, since the latter imposes
restrictions on use. Its better to think of open licenses as permissive licenses.
These licenses do not restrict use of the content covered by them: In fact, they
explicitly encourage you to use the content. As you will see in the following
slides, Creative Commons, perhaps the most widely used of the permissive licences regimes, allows you to copy and present the
material covered by the license in a number of ways. The license restrictions
seek to ensure, among other things, that the creator is attributed in your work but may
also seek to limit applications that try to commercialize or repurpose
their work. These limitations are close to the copyright concept of moral rights: the
right to be associated with one’s creation and the right of integrity in
the work. This slide sets out the various types of licenses that Creative Commons
employs. Please note that missing from this list is a CC 0 license which
places content in the public domain. CC 4.0 is the current
Creative Commons license scheme. As the chart shows, creators can mix and match
elements of the licenses to suit their requirements. Attribution, for which
the abbreviation is ‘BY’, is the base license statement. If you’re using
someone’s work there must be acknowledgment of the creator. Each element the
CC scheme beyond attribution either limits or expands the types of uses that
can be made. For example, the ‘NC’, or non-commercial designation, means that
the work cannot be used for a commercial purpose. The ‘ND’, or no derivatives
designation, means that the work can only be copied in whole and you cannot adapt or
use parts of it. The ‘SA’ or share alike designation, means that where you have used
a work, you must also designate your new work as share alike. Like all copyrighted material, obtaining permission from the copyright
holder to do that which the permissive licenses does not permit is always available
to you. As attribution is the major requirement of nearly all licensing
schemes, this slide provides the critical elements for appropriate attribution. All of these
headings are perhaps obvious, but the last needs more description. when using CC
licenses in linking back to them, there is additional contact information
in the attribution documentation. Including the creator, title, and source
of the work, the CC license will also provide a URL for seeking additional
permissions, a statement on the format of the work and the license mark. GitHub is a site that permits coders to upload
shareable code into repositories and permits others to access, adapt, and
otherwise use the content. Repository content can be loaded without the
application of license requirements but offers the option to apply licenses to
the content. Like all other licensed content, these software licenses require their
conditions be met by downstream users. The Public Domain is one of the first places
to look for content to populate the OERR. The Public Domain consists of
material that no longer enjoys copyright protection and is always free to use and
adapt to your needs. The Public Domain in a copyright context should not be
confused with content that is accessible through the Internet or other
communication platforms. In copyright, Public Domain refers to that
intellectual content which does not enjoy any copyright protection. There are two
conditions for this state: One, the content has passed the term of copyright
protection. In Canada, this would be fifty years following the death of the creator;
Two, the creator has declared the work is copyright free. In effect, the creator donates
the work to the world. One current means of making such a declaration is to
apply the Creative Commons ‘0’ license to the work. Some content becomes free
because of legislative decisions; for example, all United States government
published works enter the public domain upon their release. This is not true in Canada
where the government exercises a copyright in works for a period of fifty
years from the year of publication. Many Canadian government departments will
allow you to reproduce content published by the Department without permissions provided
the copy is accurate and properly attributed including the title and name
of the organisation. Furthermore the content should not be presented in a
manner that suggests the copy is endorsed by the Government of Canada, and it can
only be used for a non-commercial purpose. This has been one in a series of
interrelated presentations on copyright and Open Educational Resource
Repositories presented by UBC Library and Copyright at UBC. For more
information please refer to the following Copyright at UBC website
resources

Daniel Ostrander

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